Articles ▼

Howe, M., Raffa, K.F., Aukema, B.H. and Carroll, A.L. (2022) Numbers matter: How irruptive bark beetles initiate transition to self-sustaining behavior during landscape-altering outbreaks. Oecologia, in press


Howe, M., Peng, L. and Carroll, A.L. (2022) Landscape predictions of western balsam bark beetle activity implicate warm temperatures, a longer growing season, and drought in widespread irruptions across British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management, in press.


Kitchens, K.A., Peng, L., Daniels, L.D. and Carroll, A.L. (2022) Patterns of infestation by subcortical insects (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Cerambycidae) after widespread wildfires in mature Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 513 (1): 120203. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2022.120203. Open Access Link


Howe, M., Carroll, A.L., Gratton, C., and Raffa, K.F. (2021) Climate-induced outbreaks in high-elevation pines are driven primarily by immigration of bark beetles from historical hosts. Global Change Biology 27: 5786–5805. doi: 10.1111/gcb.15861


Brookes, W., Daniels, L.D., Copes-Gerbitz, K., Baron, J.N. and Carroll, A.L. (2021) A disrupted historical fire regime in central British Columbia. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 9: 676961. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2021.676961 Open Access Link


Heeter, K., Harley, G., Maxwell, J., Wilson, R., Abatzoglou, J., Rayback, S., Rochner, M. and Kitchens, K.A. (2021) Summer temperature variability since 1730 CE across the low-to-mid latitudes of western North America from a tree ring blue intensity network. Quaternary Science Reviews, 267, p.107064. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2021.107064


Leclerc, M., Daniels, L. and Carroll, A.L., (2021) Managing wildlife habitat: complex interactions with biotic and abiotic disturbances. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2021.613371 Open Access Link


Rosana, A.R.R, Pokorny, S., Klutsch, J.G., Ibarra-Romero, C., Sanichar, R., Engelhardt, D., van Belkum, M.J., Erbilgin, N., Bohlmann, J., Carroll, A.L., Vederas, J.C. (2021) Selection of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for the biocontrol of Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in Western Canada. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11172-7. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33590267.


Bradshaw, M.J. and Pane, A.M. (2020). Field inoculations of nitrogen fixing endophytes on turf grass. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology. 112: 101557. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmpp.2020.101557


Riquelme, M. A., Hofstetter, R. W., Auty, D., Gaylord, M. L. (2020) Bunching as a method to reduce wood moisture through transpirational drying following forest restoration treatments in northern Arizona. Journal of Forestry. 118(6): 625-635. https://doi.org/10.1093/jofore/fvaa038


Sambaraju, K.R., Carroll, A.L., and Aukema, B.H. (2019) Multiyear weather anomalies associated with range shifts by the mountain pine beetle preceding large epidemics. Forest Ecology and Management, 438: 86-95. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2019.02.011


Norris, A. R., Aitken, K. A., Martin, K., and Pokorny, S. (2018) Nest boxes increase reproductive output for tree swallows in a forest grassland matrix in central British Columbia. PLOS ONE, 13(10): e0204226


Wertman, D.L. and Bleiker, K.P. (2018) Shedding new light upon circadian emergence rhythmicity in the mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). The Canadian Entomologist. 151: 273-277. https://doi:10.4039/tce.2019.18.


Wertman, D.L., Bleiker, K.P., and Perlman, S.J. (2018) The light at the end of the tunnel: photosensitivity in larvae of the mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). The Canadian Entomologist. 150: 622-631. https://doi.org/10.4039/tce.2018.38.


Van Hezewijk, B., D. Wertman, D. Stewart, C. Béliveau, and M. Cusson (2018) Environmental and genetic influences on the dispersal propensity of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana). Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 20: 433-441. https://doi.org/10.1111/afe.12275.


Burke, J. L., J. Bohlmann, A. L. Carroll (2017) Consequences of distributional asymmetry in a warming environment: invasion of novel forests by the mountain pine beetle. Ecosphere. 8(4): e01778 Open Access Link


Cooke, B.J. and Carroll, A.L. (2017) Predicting the risk of mountain pine beetle spread to eastern pine forests: considering uncertainty in uncertain times. Forest Ecology and Management, 396: 11–25. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2017.04.008


Burke J. L., A. L. Carroll (2017) Breeding matters: natal experience influences population state-dependent host acceptance by an eruptive insect herbivore. PLOS ONE. 12(2): e0172448. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172448 Open Access Link


Marini, L., Okland, B., Jönsson, A.M., Bentz, B., Carroll, A.L., Forster, B., Grégoire, J.-C., Hurling, R., Nageleisen, L.-M., Netherer, S., Ravn, H.P., Weed, A., Schroeder, M. (2017) Climate drivers of bark beetle outbreak dynamics in Norway spruce forests. Ecography 40: 1-10. DOI:10.1111/ecog.02769


Ojeda, D.I., Tsui, C.K.M., Feau, N., Capron, A., Dhillon, B., Zhang, Y., Alamouti, S.M., Boone, C.K., Carroll, A.L., Cooke, J.E.K., Roe, A., Sperling, F.A.H. and Hamelin, R.C. (2017) Genetic and genomic evidence of niche partitioning and adaptive radiation in mountain pine beetle fungal symbionts. Molecular Ecology 26: 2077–2091. doi:10.1111/mec.14074


Pane, A.M. and A.N. Harmon-Threatt. (2017). An assessment of the efficacy and peak catch rates of emergence tents for measuring bee diversity. Applications in Plant Sciences. 5(6): 1700007. https://doi.org/10.3732/apps.1700007 Open Access Link


Aukema, B.H., McKee, F.R., Wytrykush, D.L. and Carroll, A.L. (2016) Population dynamics and epidemiology of bark beetles: 100 years since J.M. Swaine. The Canadian Entomologist 148: S82-S110. DOI: 10.4039/tce.2016.5


Burke J. L., A. L. Caroll (2016) The influence of variation in host tree monoterpene composition on secondary attraction by an invasive bark beetle: Implications for range expansion and potential host shift by the mountain pine beetle. Forest Ecology and Management. 359: 59-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.09.044


Song, Y., Simard, S., Carroll, A.L., Mohn, W.W. and Zeng, R.S. (2015) Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks. Scientific Reports 5 (8495): 1-9. DOI: 10.1038/srep08495


Bleiker, K.P., O’Brien, M.R., Smith, G.D. and Carroll, A.L. (2014) Characterization of attacks made by the mountain pine beetle during its endemic population phase. The Canadian Entomologist 146: 271-284. DOI 10.4039/tce.2013.71


Clark, E.L., Pitt, C., Lindgren, B.S., Carroll, A.L. and Huber, D.P.W. (2014) Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine constitutive and induced resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). PeerJ. 2:e240; DOI 10.7717/peerj.240


Fleming, A.J., Lindeman, A.A., Carroll, A.L. and Yack, J.E. (2013) Acoustics of the mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae (Curculionidae, Scolytinae): sonic, ultrasonic and vibration characteristics. Canadian Journal of Zoology 91: 235-244.


Clark, E.L., Huber, D.P.W. and Carroll, A.L. (2012) The legacy of attack: implications of very high phloem resin monoterpene levels in mass attacked lodgepole pines following successful mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, colonization. Environmental Entomology 41: 392-398.


De la Giroday, H.M., Carroll, A.L. and Aukema, B.H. (2012) Breach of the northern Rocky Mountain geoclimatic barrier: initiation of range expansion by the mountain pine beetle. Journal of Biogeography 39: 1112-1123.


Sambaraju, K.R., Carroll, A.L., Zhu, J., Stahl, K., Moore, R.D. and Aukema, B.H. (2012) Climate change could alter the distribution of mountain pine beetle outbreaks in western Canada. Ecography 35: 211-223.


Bleiker, K.P. and Carroll, A.L. (2011) Rating introgression between lodgepole and jack pine at the individual tree level using morphological traits. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 28: 138-145.


Boone C.K., Aukema B.H., Bohlmann J., Carroll A.L. and Raffa K.F. (2011) Efficacy of tree defense physiology varies with bark beetle population density: a basis for positive feedback in eruptive species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 41: 1-15.


De la Giroday, H.M., Carroll, A.L., Lindgren, B.S. and Aukema, B.H. (2011) Incoming! Association of landscape features with dispersing mountain pine beetle populations during a range expansion event in western Canada. Landscape Ecology 26: 1097–1110.


Six, D.L., de Beer, Z.W., Duong, T.A., Carroll A.L. and Wingfield, M.J. (2011) Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 100: 231-244.


Steinbauer, M.J. and Carroll, A.L. (2011) Insights into herbivore distribution and abundance: oviposition preferences of the western hemlock and phantom hemlock loopers. The Canadian Entomologist 143: 72-81.


Smith, G.D., Carroll, A.L. and Lindgren, B.S. (2011) Facilitation in bark beetles: endemic mountain pine beetle gets a helping hand. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 13: 37-43


Clark E.L., Carroll A.L. and Huber D.P.W. (2010) Differences in lodgepole pine constitutive terpene profile across a geographic range in British Columbia and the correlation to historical attack by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The Canadian Entomologist 142: 557-573.


Cudmore T.J., Björklund N., Carroll A.L. and Lindgren B.S. (2010) Climate change and range expansion of an aggressive bark beetle: evidence of higher reproductive success in naïve host tree populations. Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 1036-1043.


Safranyik L., Carroll A.L., Régnèire J., Langor D.W., Riel W.G., Shore T.L., Peter B., Cooke B.J., Nealis V.G. and Taylor S.W. (2010) Potential for range expansion of mountain pine beetle into the boreal forest of North America. The Canadian Entomologist 142: 415-442.


Raffa, K.F., Aukema, B.H., Bentz, B.J., Carroll, A.L., Erbilgin N., Herms, D.A., Hicke, J.A., Hofstetter, R.W., Katovich, S., Lindgren, B.S., Logan, J.A., Mattson, W., Munson, A.S., Robison, D.J., Six, D.L., Tobin, P.C., Townsend, P.A. and Wallin K.F. (2009) A literal meaning of forest health safeguards against misuses and misapplications. Journal of Forestry 107: 276-277.


Smith, G.D., Carroll, A.L. and Lindgren B.S. (2009) The life history of a secondary bark beetle, Pseudips mexicanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), in lodgepole pine in British Columbia. The Canadian Entomologist 141: 56-69.


Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Carroll, A.L. and Coops, N.C. (2009) Challenges for the operational detection of mountain pine beetle green attack with remote sensing. The Forestry Chronicle 85: 32-38.


Aukema, B.H., Carroll, A.L., Zheng, Y., Zhu, J., Raffa, K.F., Moore, R.D., Stahl, K. and Taylor, S.W. (2008) Movement of outbreak populations of mountain pine beetle: influence of spatiotemporal patterns and climate. Ecography 31: 348-358.


Kurz, W.A., Dymond, C.C., Stinson, G., Rampley, G.J., Neilson, E.T., Carroll, A.L., Ebata, T. and Safranyik, L. (2008) Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon: feedback to climate change. Nature 452: 987-990.


Raffa, K.F., Aukema, B.H., Bentz, B.J., Carroll, A.L., Hicke, J.A., Turner, M.G. and Romme, W.H. (2008) Cross-scale drivers of natural disturbances prone to anthropogenic amplification: dynamics of biome-wide bark beetle eruptions. BioScience 58: 501-517.


Zhu, J., Zheng, Y., Carroll, A.L., and Aukema, B.H. (2008) Autologistic regression analysis of spatial-temporal binary data via Monte Carlo maximum likelihood. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 13: 84-98.


Nelson, T., Boots, B., Wulder, M.A., and Carroll, A.L. (2007) The environmental characteristics of mountain pine beetle infestation hot spots. BC Journal of Ecosystems & Management 8: 91-108.


White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hilker, T., Wulder, M.A., Carroll, A.L. (2007) Detecting mountain pine beetle red attack damage with EO-1 Hyperion moisture indices. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 28: 2111-2121.


Aukema, B.H., Carroll, A.L., Zhu, J., Raffa, K.F., Sickley, T. and Taylor, S.W. (2006) Landscape level analysis of mountain pine beetle in British Columbia, Canada: spatiotemporal development and spatial synchrony within the present outbreak. Ecography 29: 427-441.


Wulder, M., Dymond, D., White, J., Leckie, D. and Carroll, A.L. (2006) Surveying mountain pine beetle damage of forests: a review of remote sensing opportunities. Forest Ecology and Management 221: 27-41.


Magnussen, S., Coops, N., Luther, J.E. and Carroll, A.L. (2004) An approach for the analysis of vegetation spectra using non-linear mixed modeling of truncated power spectra. Annals of Forest Science 61: 515-213.


Safranyik, L., Shore, T.L., Carroll. A.L. and Linton, D.A. (2004) Bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) diversity in spaced and unmanaged mature lodgepole pine (Pinaceae) in south-eastern British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management 200: 23-38.


Carroll, A.L. and Quiring, D.T. (2003) Herbivory modifies conifer phenology: induced amelioration by a specialist folivore. Oecologia 136: 88-95.


Franklin, S.E., Wulder, M.A. Skakun, R. and Carroll, A.L. (2003) Mountain pine beetle red-attack forest damage classification using stratified landsat TM data in British Columbia, Canada. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 69: 283-288.


Carroll, A.L. and Linton, D.A. (2002) Managing mountain pine beetle populations in British Columbia. Forest Health and Biodiversity News 6: 2-5.


Whitaker, D.M., Carroll, A.L. and Montevecchi, W.A. (2000) Increases in numbers of flying insects and insectivorous birds in riparian buffer strips. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78: 740-747.


Carroll, A.L. (1999) Physiological adaptation to temporal variation in conifer foliage by a caterpillar. Canadian Entomologist 131: 659-669.


Luther, J.E., and Carroll, A.L. (1999) Development of an index of balsam fir vigour by foliar spectral reflectance. Remote Sensing of Environment 69: 241-252.


Luther, J.E. and Carroll, A.L. (1997) Remote sensing of balsam fir forest vigour. SPIE 3222: 273-279.


Carroll, A.L. (1994) Interactions between body size and mating history influence the reproductive success of males of a tortricid moth, Zeiraphera canadensis. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72: 2124-2132.


Carroll, A.L. and Quiring, D.T. (1994) Intra-tree variation in foliage development influences the foraging strategy of a caterpillar. Ecology 75: 1978-1990.


Carroll, A.L. and Quiring, D.T. (1993) Influence of feeding by Zeiraphera canadensis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on growth of white spruce: larval density – damage and damage – shoot production relationships. Journal of Applied Ecology 30: 629-639.


Carroll, A.L. and Quiring, D.T. (1993) Interactions between size and temperature influence fecundity and longevity of a tortricid moth, Zeiraphera canadensis. Oecologia 93: 233-241.


Carroll, A.L., Lawlor, M.F. and Quiring, D.T. (1993) Influence of feeding by Zeiraphera canadensis, the spruce bud moth, on stem-wood growth of white spruce. Forest Ecology and Management 58: 41-49.


Carroll, A.L. and Quiring, D.T. (1992) Sucrose ingestion by Zeiraphera canadensis Mut. & Free. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) increases longevity and lifetime fecundity but not oviposition rate. Canadian Entomologist 124: 335-340.


Safranyik L., D.M. Shrimpton, and H.S. Whitney (1975) An interpretation of the interaction between lodgepole pine, the mountain pine beetle and its associated blue stain fungi in western Canada. in D.M. Baumgartner, editor. Excerpt from: Management of Lodgepole Pine Ecosystems Symposium Proceedings, pgs 406-428, Conference Date: October 9-11, 1973, Pullman WA USA. Transcribed from original printed text by Dr. Jordan Burke, Faculty of Forestry, UBC, 2016. [PDF, 3MB]

Theses ▼

Brookes, W. 2019. Historical and contemporary disturbance regimes in central interior dry forests of British Columbia. MSc Thesis, University of British Columbia. 122pp. View Thesis


Leclerc, M-A. F. 2017. The effects of single-objective management on disturbances in central interior dry forests of British Columbia. MSc Thesis, University of British Columbia. 139pp. View Thesis


Burke, J.L. 2016. Consequences of climate-induced range expansion of a native invasive herbivore in western Canada. PhD Dissertation, University of British Columbia. 117pp. View Thesis


Robinson, A. 2015. Spread and impact of an eruptive herbivore in a novel habitat: consequences of climate-induced range expansion. MSc Thesis, University of British Columbia. 121pp. View Thesis


Marciniak, A. 2015. Shifting disturbances in a warming environment: the western spruce budworm and Douglas-fir beetle in British Columbia. MSc Thesis, University of British Columbia. 92pp. View Thesis

Reports ▼

Carroll,A.L., Seely, B., Welham, C., and Nelson, H. (2020) Alternative approaches for integrated area-wide management of the mountain pine beetle epidemic in Alberta. fRI Research project 246.30 Final Report. 38pp.


Carroll, A.L. and Pokorny, S.W. (2020) Dynamics of endemic mountain pine beetle populations in novel habitats. fRI Research project 246.16 Final Report. 29pp.


Burke, J.L. and Carroll, A.L. (2020) Persistence or extinction? Quantifying the fate of invasive mountain pine beetles in eastern pine forests. fRI Research project 246.25 Final Report. 48pp.


Kitchens, K. (2019) Potential effects of climate change on forest health in Metro Vancouver’s water supply area: An investigation of biotic disturbance and management strategies. Final Report for Metro Vancouver Watershed and Environmental Management Division and UBC Sustainability Scholars. View Report


Carroll, A., Seely, B., Welham, C., Nelson, H. 2017. Assessing the effectiveness of Alberta’s forest management program against the mountain pine beetle. Final report for fRI Research project 246.18 parts 1 and 2. View Report


Wilson, R., Stachowiak, L., Stine, Z., and Kitchens, K. (2017) Site ecological influences on the ability of Blue Intensity and Ring Width in Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) to reconstruct past summer temperatures. Speer, J.H. (ed.) Final Report for the 27th Annual North American Dendroecological Field-week, 3-26.

Media ▼

National Geographic Magazine – April 2015 – “The Bug that’s Eating the Woods”

This is an article on the mountain pine beetle, featuring interviews with Dr. Carroll, Dr. Diana Six of the University of Montana, and other collaborators.

The Nature of Things (CBC Documentary) – “The Beetles are Coming” – 2014

The Nature of Things is a science documentary series produced by the CBC.  The subject of this episode is the mountain pine beetle, and features interviews with Dr. Carroll and Dr. Diana Six, among others.